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Member since: 2002
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Is solar a net energy loser above 46 degrees north?


Energy Policy
Volume 107, August 2017, Pages 498-505
Energy Policy
Further considerations to: Energy Return on Energy Invested (ERoEI) for photovoltaic solar systems in regions of moderate insolation

. Author links open the author workspace.FerruccioFerronia. Numbers and letters correspond to the affiliation list. Click to expose these in author workspaceOpens the author workspaceOpens the author workspace. Author links open the author workspace.AlexandrosGuekosb. Numbers and letters correspond to the affiliation list. Click to expose these in author workspace. Author links open the author workspace.Robert J.Hopkirkc. Numbers and letters correspond to the affiliation list. Click to expose these in author workspace

A paper by Ferroni and Hopkirk (2016) provided evidence that presently available PV systems in regions of moderate insolation like Switzerland and countries north of the Swiss Alps act as net energy sink. These findings were disputed in a paper (Raugei et al., 2017). Additional clarifications in support of our conclusions are explained, including mention of weak points in the argumentation by Raugei et al.

Our study is based on the concept of the extended ERoEI (ERoEIEXT) for PV systems, knowing that this is not the mainstream concept in the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), applying the Process-Based Life Cycle Assessment. The concept of the ERoEIEXT considers many possible energy contributions needed for assessing the envisioned transition from fossil fuel to other types of energy sources and here in particular to photovoltaics in regions of moderate insolation.
The conclusions of our original study remain unchanged. Any attempt to adopt an Energy Transition strategy by substitution of intermittent for base load power generation in countries like Switzerland or further north will result in unavoidable net energy loss. This applies both to the technologies considered, to the available data from the original study and to newer data from recent studies.

Edited to remove extraneous material and add a link


Crispy shrimp

This is a gif recipe from reddit:


The citizens of Seattle are not going to pay blackmail for constitutional policing

In a surprise move, U.S. District Judge James Robart declined Tuesday to approve Seattle’s landmark police-accountability legislation until he is told what key items will require bargaining with the city’s police unions.

“The citizens of Seattle are not going to pay blackmail for constitutional policing,” Robart told a packed courtroom filled with city officials who largely expected the judge to approve the long-awaited legislation.

Robart, who is presiding over a 2012 federal consent decree requiring the Seattle Police Department (SPD) to address excessive force and biased policing, said that he wasn’t prepared to approve a work in progress, and that the constitution trumps any single element of the legislation


Drought in Northern China Is Worst on Record, Officials Say

Officials governing a large area of northern China say their region is suffering from the worst drought on record, leading to crops wilting and farmers and herders growing desperate to get water to farmlands, grasslands, animals and their households.

The drought is affecting the northeastern and eastern areas of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, which is near Beijing.


"This year was not bad, it was catastrophic"


ROME/MADRID (Reuters) - Italian durum wheat and dairy farmer Attilio Tocchi saw warning signs during the winter of the dramatic drought to come at his holding a mile away from the Tuscan coast.

"When it still hadn't rained at the beginning of spring we realized it was already irreparable," he said, adding that he had installed fans to try and cool his cows that were suffering in the heat.

Drought in southern Europe threatens to reduce cereal production in Italy and parts of Spain to its lowest level in at least 20 years, and hit other regional crops including olives and almonds.

Castile and Leon, the largest cereal growing region in Spain, has been particularly badly affected, with crop losses estimated at around 60 to 70 percent.

Contesting the 45th: big oil jumps in

Big Oil has jumped into a special Washington State Senate election, in the 45th District on the Eastside, the nationally watched battle whose outcome will decide which party controls the Legislature.
Phillips 66 has given $100,000 to a group called Citizens for Progress Enterprise Washington -- spelled "Enterpise" in its Public Disclosure Commission filing -- that is making "independent" expenditures boosting Republican candidate Jinyoung Englund.

Englund is a protege of U.S. Rep. Cathy McMorris Rodgers, R-Wash., the Eastern Washington GOP lawmaker who serves in the House Republican leadership. She has worked in a variety of Republican causes, including the 2012 Mitt Romney campaign.

Englund just moved into the district, no doubt following the Republican's master plan for national domination


Severe summer heatwave and drought strongly reduced carbon uptake in Southern China

Increasing heatwave and drought events can potentially alter the carbon cycle. Few studies have investigated the impacts of hundred-year return heatwaves and droughts, as those events are rare. In the summer of 2013, southern China experienced its strongest drought and heatwave on record for the past 113 years. We show that the record-breaking heatwave and drought lasted two months (from July to August), significantly reduced the satellite-based vegetation index and gross primary production, substantially altered the regional carbon cycle, and produced the largest negative crop yield anomaly since 1960. The event resulted in a net reduction of 101.54 Tg C in carbon sequestration in the region during these two months, which was 39–53% of the annual net carbon sink of China’s terrestrial ecosystems (190–260 Tg C yr−1). Moreover, model experiments showed that heatwaves and droughts consistently decreased ecosystem vegetation primary production...


Junior's emails open a Pandora's box of questions

Click through to see all.


Jobless Rate for Post-9/11 Vets Jumped to 5.1 Percent in June


The unemployment rate for post-9/11 veterans rose again in June to 5.1 percent despite an improving economy that added 220,000 jobs, which was well above market expectations, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported Friday.

The BLS report on the employment situation nationwide in June showed that the jobless rate for post-9/11 vets, called "Gulf War-era II" veterans by the BLS, continued the trend of lagging behind the unemployment rates for all veterans, and for the civilian population.

The unemployment rate for post-9/11 vets of 5.1 percent in June was up from 4.6 percent in May and 3.9 percent in April. In May, the unemployment rate for all veterans was 3.4 percent, a 10-year low, and in June it was 3.7 percent

These women would like to share an important message

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