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Judi Lynn

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Lava Jato Dies, Lula Is Reborn: Behind The Supreme Court Ruling

MARCH 9, 2021

By Brian Mier

On March 8th, Brazilian Supreme Court Minister Edson Fachin dismissed all Lava Jato related charges against former President Luis Inacio Lula da Silva. The ruling came as a surprise to some, since Fachin has been accused of pro-Lava Jato bias in past rulings, and leaked Telegram messages, published by the Intercept in 2019, shows task-force chief Dalton Dallagnol talking about a 45 minute meeting with the Supreme Court Minister, shouting with glee and bragging to fellow prosecutors, “Fachin is ours!“.

After last month’s Supreme Court ruling, that all 6 terabytes of Telegram conversations obtained by hacker Walter Delgatti in the so called “Operation Spoofing” were admissible as evidence in the Triplex apartment case against Lula, something had to be done to stop the bleeding. As Delgatti said in a recent interview, Dalton Dallagnol never erased any of his chats. For 5 years, he had been sharing audio messages from Sergio Moro and other important political figures with fellow prosecutors, and Delgatti recorded all of them. Furthermore, as earth shattering as the Intercept revelations were, Delgatti had only shared 57 gigabytes of information with them, and he says they refused an offer for more and only released a small portion of what he had shared. As soon as the defense lawyers began filing for new motions of dismissal along with press releases containing relevant sections of newly revealed Telegram conversations, continuing the cases against Lula became politically unsustainable.

Lula’s defense team filed its first motion of dismissal for illegal collaboration with US government authorities in February, 2018, months before the Intercept began publishing excerpts from the Telegram leaks. It was based on a July 2017 speech by US Assistant Attorney General Kenneth Blanco bragging about how informal communications with Lava Jato officials helped streamline the investigation against Lula. Informal communications between public prosecutors and foreign government officials violates Brazilian sovereignty laws.

It’s second motion for dismissal based on illegal collaboration with US officials was filed the week after the Supreme Court ruled on the admissibility of Delgatti’s hacked telegram conversations. One of the justifications was a comment made on the day of Lula’s imprisonment by Lava Jato task-force chief Dalton Dallagnol, that it was a “gift from the CIA.”

More:
https://www.brasilwire.com/lava-jato-dies-lula-is-reborn-behind-the-supreme-court-ruling/

Argentina's Military Coup of 1976: What the U.S. Knew



Published: Mar 23, 2021
Briefing Book #751
Edited by Carlos Osorio

U.S. had ample forewarning of coup plotting, documents show

Officials maintained channel of communications with plotters

Ford Administration knew Argentine military planned to commit human rights violations

U.S. Ambassador aborted pre-coup visit by a former CIA deputy director


Washington, D.C., March 23, 2021 - On the eve of the 45th anniversary of the military coup in Argentina, the National Security Archive is today posting declassified documents revealing what the U.S. government knew, and when it knew it, in the weeks preceding the March 24, 1976, overthrow of Isabel Peron’s government. The documents provide evidence of multiple contacts between the coup plotters and U.S. officials. “[Admiral] Massera sought opportunity to speak privately with me,” U.S. Ambassador to Argentina Robert Hill reported in a cable sent one week before the putsch after meeting with a leading coup plotter. “[H]e said that it was no secret that military might have to step into political vacuum very soon.”

The documents posted today record the U.S. government knowledge of the plotters, their preparations for the coup, and their potential plans for what State Department officials described as “military rule for an extended duration and of unprecedented severity.” They show that the U.S. “discreetly” advised the military more than a month before the actual coup that Washington would recognize the new regime.

In the first substantive report to Secretary of State Henry Kissinger on a “Possible Coup in Argentina,” in mid-February 1976, Assistant Secretary of State William Rogers flagged the likelihood of human rights violations after a military takeover. “We would expect [the military government] to be friendly toward the United States,” he apprised Kissinger. “However, in stepping up the fight against the guerrillas, an Argentine military government would be almost certain to engage in human rights violations such as to engender international criticism. This could lead to U.S. public and Congressional pressures which would complicate our relations with the new regime.” Anticipating problems with the United States over the repression against subversion they would implement, the Argentine “military planning group” approached officials in their own foreign ministry to advise “as to how the future military govt can avoid or minimize the sort of problems the Chilean and Uruguayan govts were having with the U.S. over [the] human rights issue.”

Perhaps to discuss that very issue, the documents show that the Argentine military sought to meet with Kissinger in advance of the coup—an idea discouraged by Ambassador Hill. On February 13, 1976, Hill met with an Argentine-born U.S. businessman named “Mr. Carnicero” who informed him that “several high-ranking military officers have asked him to arrange a meeting between an appropriate military representative and Secretary Kissinger” so that they could explain why they needed to take power and seek assurances of prompt recognition. The ambassador rejected that idea on the grounds that “Such a meeting, should it become public knowledge, could be misinterpreted to the detriment of the officers themselves as well as of Secretary Kissinger.” In a revealing passage, Hill reminded the emissary that “the embassy has discreetly and through third parties already indicated to the military that the USG will recognize a new government in Argentina….”

More:
https://nsarchive.gwu.edu/briefing-book/southern-cone/2021-03-23/argentinas-military-coup-what-us-knew?eType=EmailBlastContent&eId=9fcb5efb-937e-4c13-9e3a-90897fe629e7

A violent end to a desperate dream leaves a Guatemalan town grieving

22 Mar, 2021 11:00 PM
7 minutes to read



The burial of Edgar López y López in Comitancillo, Guatemala.

Photographs by Daniele Volpe
Written by Kirk Semple
March 21, 2021


The trek from Central America to U.S. soil has always been perilous, but a massacre with many victims from one corner of Guatemala has shaken that country.

They leave behind homes, families, everything they have known, taking their chances on a dangerous trek north toward an uncertain future, driven by poverty, lack of opportunity and the hope of something better.

For most migrants who leave Central America, like those from the municipality of Comitancillo, in the mountains of western Guatemala, the goal is to reach the United States, find work, save some money and send some back home, put down roots, maybe even find love and start a family. Usually, the biggest obstacle is crossing the increasingly fortified American border without being caught.

A group of 13 migrants who left Comitancillo in January didn’t even get the chance. Their bodies were found, along with those of six other victims, shot and burned; the corpses were piled in the back of a pickup truck that had been set on fire and abandoned in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, just shy of the U.S. border. A dozen state police officers have been arrested in connection with the massacre.

The migrants’ remains made the return trip on Friday, March 12, each in a coffin draped with the Guatemalan flag, flown to a military airport in Guatemala City. A somber repatriation ceremony there, with an address by President Alejandro Giammattei, was shown live on national television. Relatives, friends and neighbors in Comitancillo watched the broadcast in their homes as they made final preparations for the arrival of the bodies and for the wakes and burials to follow.

At dusk, after climbing along the switchbacks that wind through Guatemala’s western highlands, the cortege of vehicles carrying 12 of the coffins arrived in Comitancillo. Community leaders and the victims’ families received the bodies in a ceremony on the town’s soccer field.



Above, neighbors stand on an outcrop watching the welcoming ceremony in a soccer field in Comitancillo. Below, seating was limited to close family members.



Some mourned from behind a fence, in the glow of an ambulance’s emergency lights.



. . .



A band playing outside a house that Mr. López had built in Chicajalaj, a village in the municipality of Comitancillo, with remittances he sent back from the United States.

More:
https://www.nytimes.com/2021/03/21/world/americas/guatemala-migrants-massacre-comitancillo.html

So many people have known these things for years, sadly, unable to connect with others ....

More from the article:

In short, the U.S. regime has blocked even the possibility of democracy in Venezuela, and has done this by itself violating international laws. The U.S. Government is behaving as an international thug, and it lies to say that it supports the rule of law in international affairs; it is supporting, instead, the rule of force in international affairs; it is today’s Nazi regime, attacking and destroying countries that had posed no danger whatsoever to itself, and trying to control every nation for the benefit of America’s aristocracy. Yet, U.S.-and-allied ‘news’-media, with only one exception, hid instead of reported what she had said. Consequently, the U.S., and its allies, have the world’s most untrustworthy ‘news’-media, which systematically hide (instead of report) this ugly reality to their public. Obviously, such a regime cannot possibly be a democracy, because their public are being lied-to by the regime. That’s how America and its allies came to invade and destroy Iraq, and that’s the way things clearly are today. The U.S. regime is voracious; it is imperialistic; and it is psychopathic.

In fact, Dr. Douhan greatly understated how much the U.S.-and-allied regimes have been and are perpetrating international-law violations against Venezuela, because nothing in her report even so much as mentioned the biggest of all violations of international law, which was the violation for which the Nazis were prosecuted and executed at the Nuremberg Tribunals after World War II, which was “Aggressive War” — the perpetration of attacking against a nation that has not attacked one’s own nation.

Do U.S. and UK Have the World's Most-Censored Press?

Eric Zuesse

March 16, 2021

How can democracy exist in a nation where none of the mainstream media, and few even of the non-mainstream media, are reporting the realities that all of the controlling billionaires want the public not to know?

On February 12th, the top UN official who monitors nations’ compliance with international human rights laws in the application of international sanctions, Alena Douhan, reported that the U.S.-and-allied sanctions against Venezuela violate a number of international laws and have greatly worsened the conditions, and even the maintenance of life, in Venezuela, and have caused millions of Venezuelans to flee the country so that they and their children can survive. Dr. Douhan is an internationally respected specialist in international human rights laws, and the website of the UN’s High Commissioner for Human Rights says that she is “an author of more than 120 books and articles on various aspects of international law. She has more than 40 publications (including four books) related to human rights covering inter alia issues of targeted and comprehensive sanctions; unilateral coercive measures, freedom of opinion, privacy, counter terrorism, right to development, right to education,” and other matters. The U.S. and its allies profess to endorse and embody, not to oppose and ignore, the values that the UN hired her to represent, but they do oppose and ignore them.

Her February 12th report, titled “Preliminary findings of the visit to the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela by the Special Rapporteur”, stated that:

The Special Rapporteur considers that the state of national emergency announced by the U.S. Government on 8 March 2015 as the ground for introducing sanctions against Venezuela, and repeatedly extended, does not correspond to the requirements of art. 4 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, such as the existence of a threat to the life of the nation, the limiting of measures to the exigencies of the situation, a limited duration, the absence of discrimination, the prohibition to derogate from the right to life and the prohibition of punishment of activity that does not constitute a criminal offence, as referred to in the communication of human rights experts of 29 January 2021.

The Special Rapporteur underlines that unilateral sanctions against the oil, gold, mining and other economic sectors, the state-owned airline and the TV industry constitute a violation of international law, and their wrongfulness is not excluded with reference to countermeasures. The announced purpose of the “maximum pressure” campaign – to change the Government of Venezuela – violates the principle of sovereign equality of states and constitutes an intervention in the domestic affairs of Venezuela that also affects its regional relations.

Referring to customary norms on the immunity of state property, the Special Rapporteur reminds that assets of the Central Bank and property used for public functions belong to the state of Venezuela rather than to its Government or any individual. Therefore, freezing assets of the Central Bank of Venezuela on the ground of non-recognition of its Government as well as the adoption of relevant sanctions violates the sovereign rights of the country and impedes its effective government to exercise its duty to guarantee the needs of the population.

The Special Rapporteur underlines that the listing of state officials ex officio contradicts the prohibition on punishment for activity which does not constitute a criminal offence, prevents the officials from the possibility to represent the interests of Venezuela in international courts and other international institutions, and undermines the principle of sovereign equality of states. She also notes that repeated refusals of banks in the United States, the United Kingdom and Portugal to release Venezuelan assets even for buying medicine, vaccines and protective kits, under the control of international organizations, violates the above principle and impedes the ability of Venezuela to respond to the COVID-19 emergency.

More:
https://www.strategic-culture.org/news/2021/03/16/do-u-s-and-uk-have-the-worlds-most-censored-press/

Colombia's opposition calls for protests against attempted 'coup'


by Adriaan Alsema March 18, 2021

Colombia’s opposition called for protests on Wednesday to halt attempts by the coalition of far-right President Ivan Duque to postpone elections.

Leading opposition lawmakers called on their constituencies to take to the streets to an alleged coalition attempt to lobby support to postpone the elections until 2022.

Duque publicly said to step down in August next year, but his far-right Democratic Center party has been rallying support to postpone the vote, opposition House Representative Katherine Miranda said Wednesday.

The proposal to postpone the elections and let them coincide with local elections was initially coined by Gilberto Toro, the president of the National Federation of Municipalities.

Toro’s proposal has been made multiple times before and was dismissed until Miranda (Green Alliance) found lawmakers were lobbying support to present a constitutional amendment that would allow an extension of Duque’s term.

More:
https://colombiareports.com/colombias-opposition-calls-for-protests-against-attempted-coup/

Paraguay's Chamber of Deputies Rejects Abdo's Impeachment



People has kept in the streets for more than a week, demanding president Abdo to resign. | Photo: Twitter/ @OsvaldoteleSUR

Published 17 March 2021 (3 hours 12 minutes ago)

"We need 16 more votes," Deputy Celeste Amarilla from the Liberal Party had said early, but the Colorado party of Benitez holds the majority within the legislative body.

Paraguay's Chamber of Deputies rejected an impeachment request submitted by the opposition on Wednesday, as people took to the streets demanding that President Mario Abdo Benitez resigns over accusations of corruption and mismanagement of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The opposition needed 53 votes to move on with the impeachment. "We need 16 more votes," Deputy Celeste Amarilla from the Liberal Party had said early, but the Colorado party of Benitez holds the majority within the legislative body. However, the official noticed that they were not "looking for votes; we are presenting this measure because people took to the streets to ask for it."

Protestors have been demonstrating for more than a week with violent clashes with the police. teleSUR correspondent in Paraguay Osvaldo Zayas reports that farmer's organizations have summoned for rallied in the coming days.

Last year the government requested millionaire loans to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic but the people questions where it was allocated to after a critical shortage of medical supplies and vaccines. Zayas explains that this is the second impeachment threat upon Abdo, whose term must end in 2023.

More:
https://www.telesurenglish.net/news/Paraguays-Chamber-of-Deputies-Rejects-Abdos-Impeachment-20210317-0022.html

~ ~ ~

Info. regarding Abdo, which I had never known until a moment ago:

Paraguay's business-friendly Colorado Party keeps presidency
By Daniela Desantis, Mariel Cristaldo

4 MIN READ


ASUNCION (Reuters) - The candidate from Paraguay’s ruling Colorado Party won Sunday’s presidential election, according to official results with 96 percent of ballots counted, pointing to another five years of pro-business policies in the major soy producer.

. . .

Abdo supports current low-tax policies aimed at stimulating foreign investment and agricultural production in the world’s No. 4 soybean exporter and a major supplier of beef.

. . .

Abdo is the son of the late private secretary of dictator Alfredo Stroessner, who ruled Paraguay with an iron hand for 35 years. Abdo was 16 when Stroessner’s rule ended in 1989.

Earlier on Sunday, Abdo visited the tomb of his father, as he did on the day of the primary election in December when he won the nomination of the Colorado Party.

Abdo’s conservative policies and family history were a concern to some voters who had doubts about his commitment to clean up government.

“This is a country of corruption and until we end that, we will not move forward. Mario Abdo is a son of the dictatorship and I do not think he will govern well,” Edgar Gonzalez, 45, said on his way out of his voting station in a high school in the upper-middle-class neighborhood of Trinidad in Asuncion.

More:
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-paraguay-election/paraguays-business-friendly-colorado-party-keeps-presidency-idUSKBN1HT0A0

~ ~ ~

What a shame the Colorado Party is still in control of Paraguay.

Wikipedia for the Colorado Party:

The National Republican Association – Colorado Party (Spanish: Asociación Nacional Republicana – Partido Colorado, ANR-PC) is a right-wing political party in Paraguay, founded on 11 September 1887, by Bernardino Caballero. The party was defeated in 2008 after 61 years in power, but the party regained the presidency in the 2013. With almost 2 million members, it is the largest political party in the country.

. . .

According to Antonio Soljancic, a social scientist at the Autonomous University of Asunción, "in order to get a job you had to show you were a party member. The problem Paraguay has is that, although Stroessner disappeared from the political map, he left a legacy that no one has tried to bury".[7]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colorado_Party_(Paraguay)

~ ~ ~

Wikipedia for Colorado Party's Alfredo Stroessner, monster right-wing dictator for 35 years, totally supported by Washington D.C.:

Alfredo Stroessner Matiauda (Spanish: [alˈfɾeðo estɾozˈneɾ]; 3 November 1912 – 16 August 2006) was a Paraguayan Army officer who was the dictator of Paraguay from 1954 to 1989. He ascended to the position after leading an army coup in 1954. His 35-year-long rule, marked by an uninterrupted period of repression in his country, is the longest in modern South American history.

In 1954, he ousted Federico Chávez, becoming president after winning an election in which he was the sole candidate. As an anti-communist, Stroessner had the backing of the United States for most of his time in power. His supporters packed the legislature and ran the courts, and he ruthlessly suppressed all opposition. He kept his country in what he called a constant "state of siege" that overruled civil liberties, enforced a cult of personality, and tortured and killed political opponents. Membership in his Colorado Party was a prerequisite for job promotion, free medical care and other services. The constitution had to be modified in 1967 and 1977 to legitimize his six consecutive elections to the presidency. Stroessner provided exile for Nazi war criminals (including Josef Mengele) as well as overthrown dictators, such as Nicaragua's Anastasio Somoza Debayle (later assassinated in Paraguay).

. . .

Dictatorship (1954-1989)
Stroessner objected to President Federico Chávez's plans to arm the national police and threw him out of office in a coup on May 4, 1954. After a brief interim presidency by Tomás Romero, Stroessner was the only candidate in a special election on 11 July to complete Chávez's term. He was reelected seven times—in 1958, 1963, 1968, 1973, 1978, 1983 and 1988. He appeared alone on the ballot in 1958. In his other elections, he won by implausibly high margins; only once (1968) did an opposition candidate get more than 20 percent of the vote. He served for 35 years, with only Fidel years (1976–2008).

Soon after taking office, Stroessner declared a state of siege, which allowed him to suspend civil liberties. The state-of-siege provisions allowed the government to arrest and detain anyone indefinitely without trial, as well as forbid public meetings and demonstrations. It was renewed every 90 days until 1987, except for a brief period in 1959. Although it technically only applied to Asunción after 1970, the courts ruled that anyone charged with security offenses could be brought to the capital and charged under the state-of-siege provisions—even if the offense took place outside the capital.[2][3] Apart from one 24-hour period on election days, Stroessner ruled under what amounted to martial law for nearly all of his tenure. A devoted anti-communist who brought Paraguay into the World Anti-Communist League, he justified his repression as a necessary measure to protect the country.

Paraguay enjoyed close military and economic ties with the United States and supported the US invasion of the Dominican Republic.[4] The Stroessner regime even offered to send troops to Vietnam alongside the Americans.[5] The United States played a "critical supporting role" in the domestic affairs of Stoessner's Paraguay.[6] Between 1962 and 1975 the US provided $146 million to Paraguay's military government and Paraguayan officers were trained at the US Army School of the Americas.[7] Although the military and security forces under Stroessner received less material support from the United States than other South American countries, strong inter-military connections existed through military advisors and military training. Between 1962 and 1966, nearly 400 Paraguayan military personnel were trained by the United States in the Panama Canal Zone and on US soil.[8] Strong Paraguayan-U.S. relations continued until the Carter Administration emphasized a foreign policy that recognized human rights abuses, although both military and economic aid were allotted to the Paraguayan government in Carter's budgets.[9] The Reagan Administration restored more cordial relations due to Stroessner's staunch anti-communism, but by the mid 1980s relations cooled, largely because of the international outcry over the regime's excesses, along with its involvement in narcotics trafficking and money-laundering.[10][11][12] In 1986, The Reagan administration added his regime to its list of Latin American dictatorships.[13]

. . .

Operation Condor

. . .

Under Stroessner, egregious human rights violations were committed against the Aché Indian population of Paraguay's eastern districts, largely as the result of U.S. and European corporations wanting access to the country's forests, mines and grazing lands.[31][7] The Aché Indians resided on land that was coveted and had resisted relocation attempts by the Paraguayan army. The government retaliated with massacres and forced many Aché into slavery. In 1974 the UN accused Paraguay of slavery and genocide. Only a few hundred Aché remained alive by the late 1970s.[7] The Stroessner regime financed this genocide with U.S. aid.[7]


More:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfredo_Stroessner

Good allies, Stroessner and Chile's blood-thirsty (US supported) Augusto Pinochet:









The dictators, from left: Jorge Videla of Argentina, Augusto Pinochet of Chile, João Figueiredo of Brazil and Alfredo Stroessner of Paraguay. Composite: AP, Reuters & Rex Features

'Macaco' joins other former warlords to testify before Colombia's Truth Commission

by Adriaan Alsema March 17, 2021

One of Colombia’s most important former paramilitary commanders asked to testify before the Truth Commission over his role in the country’s armed conflict.

. . .

The BCB was one of the AUC’s most powerful paramilitary groups until the demobilization of their more than 7,600 members between 2003 and 2006.

. . .

The BCB’s late political leader, Ivan Roberto Duque, died in 2019, three says after committing to cooperate the Truth Commission about the crimes of the organization he led with Jimenez. Before )his death, Duque estimated that the BCB and other paramilitary groups’ political influence reached so far they had half of Congress in their pocket in 2002.

More:
https://colombiareports.com/macaco-joins-other-former-warlords-who-will-testify-before-colombias-truth-commission/

~ ~ ~



"Macaco"



"Macaco"





"Macaco's" death squad dirtbags going through a village.

Victims want Colombia to strip military war criminals of medals


by Adriaan Alsema March 17, 2021

The families of civilians who were executed by Colombia’s security forces to inflate results want the commanders responsible of these atrocities to be stripped of their medals, they said Tuesday.

The representative of the Association of Mothers of False Positives (Mafapo), Jacqueline Castillo, said that victims of her organization want the security forces to revoke decorations of war criminals as a means of compensation.

Castillo expressed the victims’ wish during the presentation of a report to the war crimes tribunal and the truth commission on the victimization of family members of more than 6,400 civilians who were executed and falsely presented as combat kills.

The victims’ representative said some women sold their homes in order to have the funds that would allow them to find their missing sons.

More:
https://colombiareports.com/victims-want-colombia-to-strip-military-war-criminals-of-medals/

An ancient Maya ambassador's bones show a life of privilege and hardship

15-MAR-2021

Ajpach' Waal forged an alliance between two dynasties but died in obscurity

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA - RIVERSIDE



IMAGE: TEETH WITH DENTAL INLAYS FROM A NONROYAL ELITE MAYAN TOMB.

CREDIT: KENICHIRO TSUKAMOTO

An important Maya man buried nearly 1,300 years ago led a privileged yet difficult life. The man, a diplomat named Ajpach' Waal, suffered malnutrition or illness as a child, but as an adult he helped negotiate an alliance between two powerful dynasties that ultimately failed. The ensuing political instability left him in reduced economic circumstances, and he probably died in relative obscurity.

During excavations at El Palmar, a small plaza compound in Mexico near the borders of Belize and Guatemala, archaeologists led by Kenichiro Tsukamoto, an assistant professor of anthropology at UC Riverside, discovered a hieroglyph-adorned stairway leading up to a ceremonial platform. When deciphered, the hieroglyphs revealed that in June, 726 CE, Ajpach' Waal traveled and met the king of Copán, 350 miles away in Honduras, to forge an alliance with the king of Calakmul, near El Palmar.

The findings, published in the journal Latin American Antiquity, shed light on the role communities peripheral to major centers played in cementing connections between royal families during the Late Classic period (600-800 CE), and the ways they might suffer when something shattered those alliances.

The inscriptions identified Ajpach' Waal as a "lakam," or standard-bearer, an ambassador that carried a banner as they walked on diplomatic missions between cities. He inherited this lofty position through his father's lineage, and his mother also came from an elite family. Ajpach' Waal must have considered this his crowning achievement because the hieroglyphs indicate he was not given the platform by El Palmar's ruler, but had it built it for himself a few months after the mission in September, 726 CE. The platform served as a sort of theatrical stage where spectacular rituals were performed for an audience, with only influential people able to build their own.

More:
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-03/uoc--aam031521.php

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Looked for a photo of jewel-inlaid Mayan teeth:




Dental Modifications of Ancient Maya and Other Civilizations (Part Two)
Posted on August 6, 2013 by Dr. Gray

The jewel inlays, mentioned in Part 1 of this series, are the type of dental modification that most closely resembles today’s fads. Similar to “grills” or other forms of “tooth jewelry,” the inlays of the Ancient Maya required exquisite skill and craftsmanship. This technique is thought to have begun in the Pre-Classic (100 BC-300 AD). However, the more elegant tooth alterations occurred much more recently, sometime between 700 and 900 AD. The stones commonly used to highlight the teeth of these Mayan men, women, and children included pyrite, jadeite, turquois, hematite, quartz, serpentine, and cinnabar.

Joel B. Schilling, DDS, says that the Ancient Maya used powdered quartz in water as an abrasive while drilling holes for these inlays. They spun a round, hard tube between the hands or in a rope drill to cut a round indention into the tooth enamel. It’s also been suggested that a thin, sharpened animal bone that had been hardened by fire was used. Either way, after the hole was made the inlay was cemented into place.

“Head Shaping and Dental Decoration Among the Ancient Maya: Archeological and Cultural Aspects,” by Vera Tiesler, states that dental modification was slightly more common among females, with about 65 percent of females having modified teeth compared to roughly 58 percent of males. Also, based on archaeological findings it appears that roughly 60 percent of them engaged in some form of dental modification, and more than fifty different patterns have been identified within Ancient Maya culture.

In fact, there is an outstanding collection of over 1,200 teeth adorned at the Instituto Nacional de Anthropologia e Historia in Mexico City. Romero Molina, of the INAH, so far has found 62 different patterns of teeth and organized these patterns into 7 different categories. Most of these teeth have come from Middle America, with only 3 coming from South America and 3 coming from North America. In addition to the different patterns of individual teeth, Molina also discovered that the teeth would sometimes be combined to form specific patterns in the jaw to add to the overall visual effect.

More:
https://santarosadentist.wordpress.com/2013/08/06/dental-modifications-of-ancient-maya-and-other-civilizations-part-two/
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