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eppur_se_muova

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Hometown: Alabama
Member since: Fri Sep 9, 2005, 06:39 PM
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Bible story of Sodom revisited. Was it a meteor strike? (earthsky.org) {old news, but interesting}

Posted by EarthSky Voices
September 22, 2021

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article. This article was co-authored by research collaborators archaeologist Phil Silvia, geophysicist Allen West, geologist Ted Bunch and space physicist Malcolm Lecompte. {I have linked to earthsky.org because the pix from the original article are no longer showing up}

By Christopher R. Moore, University of South Carolina
Bible story of Sodom?

On an ordinary day some 3,600 years ago, the inhabitants of an ancient Middle Eastern city now called Tall el-Hammam [now identified with the Biblical city of Sodom] went about their daily business. They had no idea an unseen icy space rock was speeding toward them at about 38,000 mph (61,000 kph).

Flashing through the atmosphere, the rock exploded in a massive fireball about 2.5 miles (4 kilometers) above the ground. The blast was around 1,000 times more powerful than the Hiroshima atomic bomb. The shocked city dwellers who stared at it were blinded instantly. Air temperatures rapidly rose above 3,600 degrees Fahrenheit (2,000 degrees Celsius). Clothing and wood immediately burst into flames. Swords, spears, mudbricks and pottery began to melt. Almost immediately, the entire city was on fire.

Some seconds later, a massive shockwave smashed into the city. Moving at about 740 mph (1,200 kph), it was more powerful than the worst tornado ever recorded. The deadly winds ripped through the city, demolishing every building. They sheared off the top 40 feet (12 m) of the 4-story palace and blew the jumbled debris into the next valley. None of the 8,000 people or any animals within the city survived – their bodies were torn apart and their bones blasted into small fragments.

About a minute later, 14 miles (22 km) to the west of Tall el-Hammam, winds from the blast hit the biblical city of Jericho. Jericho’s walls came tumbling down and the city burned to the ground.
***
Getting answers required nearly 15 years of painstaking excavations by hundreds of people. It also involved detailed analyses of excavated material by more than two dozen scientists in 10 states in the U.S., as well as Canada and the Czech Republic. When our group finally published the evidence recently in the journal Scientific Reports, the 21 co-authors included archaeologists, geologists, geochemists, geomorphologists, mineralogists, paleobotanists, sedimentologists, cosmic-impact experts and medical doctors.

Here’s how we built up this picture of devastation in the past.
***
more: https://earthsky.org/human-world/bible-story-of-sodom-meteor-strike/?utm_source=EarthSky+News

https://theconversation.com/a-giant-space-rock-demolished-an-ancient-middle-eastern-city-and-everyone-in-it-possibly-inspiring-the-biblical-story-of-sodom-167678

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-60867-w (an earlier impact event)
Posted by eppur_se_muova | Sat Oct 23, 2021, 12:15 PM (4 replies)

Iron actually reacts very slowly with water -- it is the oxygen in the air which does the work.

Water accelerates the process, by complexing reversibly with the iron atoms. So, a water solution of a chelating agent, exposed to air, would likely help accelerate rusting in the same way. I'm pretty sure the instructions say to wash and wipe it off thoroughly when you're done, and for good reason.

Coating steel tools with oil is the traditional way to prevent rust. Good mineral oil will do the job, though some vegetable oils are traditionally used. Camellia oil, for example, has long been used in Japan, but apparently mineral oil is better. One thing to try is to add a few percent of clove oil, or more economically, witch hazel oil*, to the mineral oil to inhibit bacterial growth which can accelerate rusting, though only woodworkers usually go this far, to protect their very expensive and very sharp tools.

You can even use spray vegetable oil: https://ucanr.edu/blogs/blogcore/postdetail.cfm?postnum=16760


* NOT witch hazel extract, which contains water and alcohol ! I have a huge bottle of witch hazel oil which I bought for under $3 at the drugstore years back. It works as well as the much more expensive clove oil (which is favored by dentists, because it comes into contact with sensitive tissues, without any harm).

Posted by eppur_se_muova | Mon Oct 4, 2021, 05:31 PM (2 replies)

Bachman's Warbler has gone to join Dick Davenport ....


http://creagrus.home.montereybay.com/CAtop10chases2-DR.html

Fauna and flora declared extinct

It’s a rare move for wildlife officials to give up hope on a plant or animal, but US government scientists say they've exhausted efforts to find these 23 species.
Page 1 of 5
Species Where found Last confirmed sighting
Shampoo Bachman's warbler Florida, South Carolina Shampoo 1988
Shampoo Bridled white-eye Guam (Western Pacific) 1983
Shampoo Ivory-billed woodpecker Southeastern U.S. Shampoo 1944
Shampoo Kauai akialoa Hawaii Shampoo 1969
Shampoo Kauai nukupuu Hawaii Shampoo 1899
Source: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

https://apnews.com/article/climate-change-science-animals-wildlife-fish-b6e61676548a1d7b2f81a6512cbed7a7
Posted by eppur_se_muova | Fri Oct 1, 2021, 03:52 AM (3 replies)
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